Reflux is common in newborns. Most babies outgrow reflux between the time they are 1 and 2 years old ||Massaging infants' arms and hands can significantly reduce their pain from needle sticks ||Design a kid corner and fill it with things safe for your toddler like Tupperware, toys, empty boxes, etc. ||When giving suspension or liquid medicines, use the dosage cup enclosed in the package or a syringe ||Plan for regular family meals. Enjoy being together as a family and give a chance for everyone to decompress from the day ||Infant constipation is the passage of hard, dry bowel movements — not necessarily the absence of daily bowel movements ||Proper weight gain is the sign that your baby is having enough milk. Not crying and not comparing with other kids ||You'll develop a unique parenting style that is right for your family and may be quite different from your neighbors and friends. ||The only acceptable punishment for our children is time-out. No spanking, no shouting and no threatening ||If every feeding is painful or your baby isn't gaining weight, ask a lactation consultant or your baby's doctor for help ||
Can I really get a dangerous infection from my cat?

David Barrere, MD

If you have a cat, you may have heard you are at risk of catching an illness from your pet during pregnancy.

Your question
I have a cat, and heard there's a danger of me getting toxoplasmosis from her? What is toxoplasmosis, and how can I avoid it?

The expert answers


Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis) is a protozoan that has a complex, 3-stage life cycle that is dependent on cats, which are the only known host for the oocyst stage. The oocyst stage develops in the cat's intestine, and is excreted in feces. Human infection occurs when food is contaminated with feces or infected meat is consumed. Stray cats and domestic cats that consume raw meat are most likely to harbor toxoplasmosis. Hand washing and proper cooking of meats helps to prevent human infection.

When an infection occurs, they most commonly are asymptomatic. Symptomatic infection, although quite rare, presents in a similar fashion to mononucleosis . Immunocompromised patients (patients with HIV infection or who are taking immunosuppressants after organ transplants) are more susceptible to symptomatic infection.

The diagnosis of an acute infection is made by serologic (blood) testing for antibodies to toxoplasmosis. The initial antibody produced is called IgM, and the presence of this antibody indicates a recent infection. Later, the body produces antibodies called IgG.

Congenital infection of the fetus can occur if a woman develops acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. The third trimester is the period of highest fetal susceptibility to infection. Recurrent or chronic infection is unlikely to cause injury to the fetus unless the patient is immunocompromised.

Treatment of an acute infection is recommended in pregnant women and non-pregnant, immunocompromised patients. Treatment of the mother clearly has been shown to decrease the risk of congenital infection, however it does not totally eliminate its occurrence. Close follow-up of the fetus using frequent ultrasonography should be instituted, looking for signs of infection including:

· growth restriction

· calcifications within the brain

· microcephaly (small head)

· hepatosplenomegaly (organ enlargement)

· ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen and chest)

Amniocentesis to obtain amniotic fluid, or cordocentesis to obtain fetal blood can be performed to test for the presence of toxoplasmosis, however this is rarely done.

By far, the best treatment for toxoplasmosis is prevention of the infection. For this reason, many pregnant women are advised not to change the cat's litter box during pregnancy.



----Cited from D Barrere, MD, pregnancy and child magazine----

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